Stem Cells

The foundation cells for every organ and tissue in our bodies. The highly specialized cells that make up these tissues originally came from an initial pool of stem cells formed shortly after fertilization.

Cell Life

Throughout our lives, we continue to rely on stem cells to replace injured tissues and cells that are lost every day, such as those in our skin, hair, blood and the lining of our gut.

Properties of Stem Cells

The ability to self-renew, dividing in a way that makes copies of themselves, and the ability to differentiate, giving rise to the mature types of cells that make up our organs and tissues

Embryonic Stem Cells

Cells derived from very early in development, usually the inner cell mass of a developing blastocyst (very early embrio). These cells are self-renewing (can replicate themselves) and pluripotent (can form all cell types found in the body).

Fetal Stem Cells

fetal stem cells are taken from the fetus. The developing baby is referred to as a fetus from approximately 10 weeks of gestation. Most tissues in a fetus contain stem cells that drive the rapid growth and development of the organs. Like adult stem cells, fetal stem cells are generally tissue specific, and generate the mature cell types within the particular tissue or organ in which they are found.

Cord Blood Stem Cells

At birth the blood in the umbilical cord is rich in blood-forming stem cells. The applications of cord blood are similar to those of adult bone marrow and are currently used to treat diseases and conditions of the blood or to restore the blood system after treatment for specific cancers. Like the stem cells in adult bone marrow, cord blood stem cells are tissue-specific.

Adult Stem Cells or Tissue Specific Stem Cells

Stem cells found in different tissues of the body that can give rise to some or all of the mature cell types found within the particular tissue or organ from which they came, i.e., blood stem cells can give rise to all the cells that make up the blood, but not the cells of organs such as the liver or brain.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cells were originally discovered in the bone marrow, but have since been found throughout the body and can give rise to a large number of connective tissue types such as bone, cartilage and fat.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS cells)

Stem cells that were from a cell with a specialized function (for example, a skin cell) that has been “reprogrammed” to an specialized state similar to that of an embryonic stem cell.

Blood Stem Cells

Currently the most frequently used stem cells for therapy. For more than 50 years, doctors have been using bone marrow transplants to transfer blood stem cells to patients, and more advanced techniques for collecting blood stem cells are now being used to treat leukemia, lymphoma and several inherited blood disorders.

Umbilical Cord Blood?

Like bone marrow, is often collected as a source of blood stem cells and in certain cases is being used as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. Additionally, some bone, skin and corneal diseases or injuries can be treated by grafting tissues that are derived from or maintained by stem cells. These therapies have also been shown to be safe and effective.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell

Found throughout the body including in the bone marrow, can be directed to become bone, cartilage, fat and possibly even muscle. In certain experimental models, these cells also have some ability to modify immune functions. These abilities have created considerable interest in developing ways of using mesenchymal stem cells to treat a range of musculoskeletal abnormalities, cardiac disease and some immune abnormalities such as graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplant.


A stem cell therapy is a treatment that uses:

  • Stem cells,
  • Protein secreted by stem cells , or
  • Cells that come from stem cells, to replace or to repair a patient

Clinical Translation

The process used to turn scientific knowledge into real world medical treatments. Researchers take what they have learned about how a tissue usually works and what goes wrong in a particular disease or injury and use this information to develop new ways to diagnose, stop or fix what goes wrong.

Before being marketed or adopted as standard of care, most treatments are tested through clinical trials. Sometimes, in attempting new surgical techniques or where the disease or condition is rare and does not have a large enough group of people to form a clinical trial, certain treatments might be tried on one or two people, a form of testing sometimes referred to as innovative medicine.


The stem cells might be put into the blood, or transplanted into the damaged tissue directly, or even recruited from the patient

Proses Penuaan dan Cancer yang dipicu oleh Distres

Penuaan merupakan penurunan keadaan homeostasis secara progresif setelah fase reproduktif kehidupan tercapai sehingga menimbulkan risiko peningkatan penyakit atau kematian. Penuaan secara biologis dikaitkan dengan usia secara kronologis, namun penuaan secara dini dapat terjadi diawal kehidupan sebagai kegagalan dalam merawat serta memperbaiki sel dan organ karena kerusakan DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid).



a region of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration.